Definitions of Automobiles


Automobiles are wheeled motor vehicles that are used for transportation. By definition, they are motor vehicles that run on roads and seat one to eight people. They also have four wheels and are used primarily for transporting people. However, the term car can mean different things to different people. Here are some common definitions for cars:

Internal combustion engine

The internal combustion engine is the most popular technology in automobiles, powered by liquid fuel. The invention of this technology revolutionized the automobile industry and made it much more affordable. The internal combustion engine uses liquid fuel to propel a piston, which in turn turns the crankshaft and drives the wheels of the car. It was one of the first technologies to be used in automobiles.

There are two types of internal combustion engines. The Otto cycle and the Diesel cycle. In the Otto cycle, combustion occurs rapidly at the start of the power stroke and expands adiabatically throughout the power stroke. Both types of engines experience friction, which reduces the efficiency. The second law of thermodynamics limits the amount of energy an ICE can produce and maintain.


Transmissions in automobiles convert the power produced by the engine into movement of the wheels. They have several functions, and they can be either manual or automatic. Manual transmissions are used in vehicles that have a manual shift, while automatic transmissions are used in cars that use automatic gear shifting. CVT transmissions, on the other hand, use automatic gear selection to change gears.

Transmissions in automobiles vary in complexity and performance. In an automatic transmission, the output of the engine is passed through a driveshaft to one or more differentials. Differentials help the wheels rotate at different speeds and prevent wheel slippage during turns.

Power steering

Power steering is a technology that helps drivers control the steering wheel of a vehicle. This technology is often made more efficient by incorporating electric motors. It also helps improve fuel economy, eliminates the need for hydraulic fluid maintenance, and enables a number of convenience and driver-assist features. Some examples of these features include automated lane changes and parking. These systems make it almost effortless to steer the car.

A vehicle’s power steering system works by detecting the driver’s input and applying an extra force to the steering wheel to turn the vehicle. It does this by increasing the pressure of a hydraulic fluid in the steering system, which is directed through a series of metal tubes and hoses. This helps the steering wheel to respond quickly and smoothly, making it easier to maintain a lane in traffic, change directions, and make complex parking manoeuvres.

Automatic controls

Automatic controls in automobiles are emerging as an important area of research. Compared to engine control, these systems have greater complexity due to the large number of dynamic variables. These systems also require a higher memory and network traffic. Some examples of automatic control techniques in automobiles include adaptive control, state estimation, and plant modelling.

The Automotive Research Group works on developing the software required for autonomous driving. The research group focuses on the development of motion planning and control algorithms. It faces challenges related to complex scenarios, interactions with multiple vehicles, and driving at the limit of handling. The group recently entered the Indy Autonomous Challenge to test algorithms under real-world conditions. This competition is set to take place in the fall of 2021 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

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